Building derivations, how complicated can it be?

Derivations are key to Guix, they're the low-level build instructions used for things like packages, disk images, and most things than end up in the store.

Around a year ago, the established approach to build derivations across multiple machines was daemon offloading. This offloading approach is mostly static in terms of the machines involved and uses SSH to communicate and move things between machines.

The Guix Build Coordinator project set out to provide an alternative approach, both to explore what's possible, but also to provide a usable tool to address two specific use cases.

The first use case was building things (mostly packages) for the purpose of providing substitutes. At the time, the daemon offloading approach used on which is the default source of substitutes. This approach was not scaling particularly well, so there was room for improvement.

The second use case was more aspirational, support various quality assurance tasks, like building packages changed by patches, regularly testing fixed output derivations, or building the same derivations across different machines to test for hardware specific differences.

While both these tasks have quite a lot in common, there's still quite a lot of differences, this in part led to a lot of flexibility in the design of the Guix Build Coordinator.


Like offloading, the Guix Build Coordinator works in a centralised manner. There's one coordinator process which manages state, and agent processes run on the machines that perform builds. The coordinator plans which builds to allocate to which agents, and agents ask the coordinator for builds, which they then attempt.

Once agents complete a build, they send the log file and any outputs back to the coordinator. This is shown in the diagram below. Note that the Guix Build Coordinator doesn't actually take care of building the individual derivations, that's still left to guix-daemon's on the machines involved.

Guix Build Coordinator sequence diagram

The builds to perform are worked through methodically, a build won't start unless all the inputs are available. This behaviour replicates what guix-daemon does, but across all the machines involved.

If agents can't setup to perform a build, they report this back to the coordinator, which may then perform other builds to produce those required inputs.

Currently HTTP is used when agents want to communicate to the coordinator, although additional approaches could be implemented in the future. Similarly, SQLite is used as the database, but from the start there has been a plan to support PostgreSQL, but that's yet to be implemented.

Comparison to offloading

There's lots more to the internal workings of the Guix Build Coordinator, but how does this compare to the daemon offloading builds?

Starting from the outside and working in, the API for the Guix Build Coordinator is all asynchronous. When you submit a build, you get an ID back, which you can use to track the progress of that build. This is in contrast to the way the daemon is used, where you keep a connection established while builds are progressing.

Offloading is tightly integrated with the daemon, which can be both useful as offloading can transparently apply to anything that would otherwise be built locally. However, this can also be a limitation since the daemon is one of the harder components to modify.

With offloading, guix-daemon reaches out to another machine, copies over all the inputs and the derivation, and then starts the build. Rather than doing this, the Guix Build Coordinator agent pulls in the inputs and derivation using substitutes.

This pull approach has a few advantages, firstly it removes the need to keep a large store on the machine running the coordinator, and this large store requirement of using offloading became a problem in terms of scalability for the offloading approach. Another advantage is that it makes deploying agents easier, as they don't need to be reachable from the coordinator over the network, which can be an issue with NATs or virtual machines.

When offloading builds, the outputs would be copied back to the store on build success. Instead, the Guix Build Coordinator agent sends the outputs back as nar files. The coordinator would then process these nar files to make substitutes available. This helps distribute the work in generating the nar files, which can be quite expensive.

These differences may be subtle, but the architecture makes a big difference, it's much easier to store and serve nars at scale if this doesn't require a large store managed by a single guix-daemon.

There's also quite a few things in common with the daemon offloading approach. Builds are still methodically performed across multiple machines, and load is taken in to account when starting new builds.

A basic example

Getting the Guix Build Coordinator up and running does require some work, the following commands should get the coordinator and an agent running on a single machine. First, you start the coordinator.


Then in another terminal, you interact with the running coordinator to create an agent in it's database.

  guix-build-coordinator agent new

Note the UUID of the generated agent.

  guix-build-coordinator agent <AGENT ID> password new

Note the generated password for the agent. With the UUID and password, the agent can then be started.

  guix-build-coordinator-agent --uuid=<AGENT ID> --password=<AGENT PASSWORD>

At this point, both processes should be running and the guix-build-coordinator should be logging requests from the agent.

In a third terminal, also at the root of the repository, generate a derivation, and then instruct the coordinator to have it built.

  guix build --no-grafts -d hello

Note the derivation that is output.

  guix-build-coordinator build <DERIVATION FILE>

This will return a randomly generated UUID that represents the build.

While running from the command line is useful for development and experimentation, there are services in Guix for running the coordinator and agents.

Applications of the Guix Build Coordinator

While I think the Guix Build Coordinator is a better choice than daemon offloading in some circumstances, it doesn't currently replace it.

At a high level, the Guix Build Coordinator is useful where there's a need to build derivations and do something with the outputs or build results, more than just having the outputs in the local store. This could be serving substitutes, or testing derivations for example.

At small scales, the additional complexity of the coordinator is probably unnecessary, but when it's useful to use multiple machines, either because of the resources that provides, or because of a more diverse range of hardware, then it makes much more sense to use the Guix Build Coordinator to coordinate what's going on.

Looking forward

The Guix Build Coordinator isn't just an alternative to daemon offloading, it's more a general toolkit for coordinating the building of derivations.

Much of the functionality in the Guix Build Coordinator happens in hooks. There are bits of code (hooks) that run when certain events happen, like a build gets submitted, or a build finished successfully. It's these hooks that are responsible for doing things like processing nars to be served as substitutes, or submitting retries for a failed build.

This hook to automatically retry building particular derivations is particularly useful when trying to provide substitutes where you want to lessen the impact of random failures, or for quality assurance purposes, where you want more data to better identify problems.

There are also more features such as build and agent tags and build priorities that can be really useful in some scenarios.

My hope is that the Guix Build Coordinator will enable a better substitute experience for Guix users, as well as enabling a whole new range of quality assurance tasks. It's already possible to see some impact from the Guix Build Coordinator, but there's still much work to do!

Additional material

About GNU Guix

GNU Guix is a transactional package manager and an advanced distribution of the GNU system that respects user freedom. Guix can be used on top of any system running the Hurd or the Linux kernel, or it can be used as a standalone operating system distribution for i686, x86_64, ARMv7, and AArch64 machines.

In addition to standard package management features, Guix supports transactional upgrades and roll-backs, unprivileged package management, per-user profiles, and garbage collection. When used as a standalone GNU/Linux distribution, Guix offers a declarative, stateless approach to operating system configuration management. Guix is highly customizable and hackable through Guile programming interfaces and extensions to the Scheme language.