A locale defines cultural conventions for a particular language and
region of the world (see 区域 in The GNU C Library Reference
Manual). Each locale has a name that typically has the form
fr_LU.utf8 designates the locale for the French language, with
cultural conventions from Luxembourg, and using the UTF-8 encoding.
Usually, you will want to specify the default locale for the machine using
locale field of the
The selected locale is automatically added to the locale definitions
known to the system if needed, with its codeset inferred from its
bo_CN.utf8 will be assumed to use the
codeset. Additional locale definitions can be specified in the
locale-definitions slot of
operating-system—this is useful,
for instance, if the codeset could not be inferred from the locale name.
The default set of locale definitions includes some widely used locales, but
not all the available locales, in order to save space.
For instance, to add the North Frisian locale for Germany, the value of that field may be:
(cons (locale-definition (name "fy_DE.utf8") (source "fy_DE")) %default-locale-definitions)
Likewise, to save space, one might want
locale-definitions to list
only the locales that are actually used, as in:
(list (locale-definition (name "ja_JP.eucjp") (source "ja_JP") (charset "EUC-JP")))
The compiled locale definitions are available at
X.Y is the libc version,
which is the default location where the GNU libc provided by Guix looks
for locale data. This can be overridden using the
LOCPATH and locale packages).
locale-definition form is provided by the
locale) module. Details are given below.
This is the data type of a locale definition.
The name of the locale. See Locale Names in The GNU C Library Reference Manual, for more information on locale names.
The name of the source for that locale. This is typically the
language_territory part of the locale name.
The “character set” or “code set” for that locale, as defined by IANA.
A list of commonly used UTF-8 locales, used as the default value of the
locale-definitions field of
These locale definitions use the normalized codeset for the part that
follows the dot in the name (see normalized
codeset in The GNU C Library Reference Manual). So for instance it
uk_UA.utf8 but not, say,
operating-system declarations provide a
locale-libcs field to
specify the GNU libc packages that are used to compile locale
declarations (see 操作系统参考). “Why would I care?”,
you may ask. Well, it turns out that the binary format of locale data is
occasionally incompatible from one libc version to another.
For instance, a program linked against libc version 2.21 is unable to read
locale data produced with libc 2.22; worse, that program aborts
instead of simply ignoring the incompatible locale data31. Similarly, a program linked
against libc 2.22 can read most, but not all, of the locale data from libc
LC_COLLATE data is incompatible); thus calls to
setlocale may fail, but programs will not abort.
The “problem” with Guix is that users have a lot of freedom: They can choose whether and when to upgrade software in their profiles, and might be using a libc version different from the one the system administrator used to build the system-wide locale data.
Fortunately, unprivileged users can also install their own locale data and
GUIX_LOCPATH accordingly (see
GUIX_LOCPATH and locale packages).
Still, it is best if the system-wide locale data at
/run/current-system/locale is built for all the libc versions
actually in use on the system, so that all the programs can access it—this
is especially crucial on a multi-user system. To do that, the administrator
can specify several libc packages in the
locale-libcs field of
(use-package-modules base) (operating-system ;; … (locale-libcs (list glibc-2.21 (canonical-package glibc))))
This example would lead to a system containing locale definitions for both libc 2.21 and the current version of libc in /run/current-system/locale.
Versions 2.23 and later of GNU libc will simply skip the incompatible locale data, which is already an improvement.