User accounts and groups are entirely managed through the
operating-system declaration. They are specified with the
(user-account (name "alice") (group "users") (supplementary-groups '("wheel" ;allow use of sudo, etc. "audio" ;sound card "video" ;video devices such as webcams "cdrom")) ;the good ol' CD-ROM (comment "Bob's sister"))
Here’s a user account that uses a different shell and a custom home directory (the default would be "/home/bob"):
(user-account (name "bob") (group "users") (comment "Alice's bro") (shell (file-append zsh "/bin/zsh")) (home-directory "/home/robert"))
When booting or upon completion of
guix system reconfigure, the
system ensures that only the user accounts and groups specified in the
operating-system declaration exist, and with the specified
properties. Thus, account or group creations or modifications made by
directly invoking commands such as
useradd are lost upon
reconfiguration or reboot. This ensures that the system remains exactly as
Objects of this type represent user accounts. The following members may be specified:
The name of the user account.
This is the name (a string) or identifier (a number) of the user group this account belongs to.
Optionally, this can be defined as a list of group names that this account belongs to.
This is the user ID for this account (a number), or
#f. In the
latter case, a number is automatically chosen by the system when the account
A comment about the account, such as the account owner’s full name.
Note that, for non-system accounts, users are free to change their real name
as it appears in /etc/passwd using the
chfn command. When
they do, their choice prevails over the system administrator’s choice;
reconfiguring does not change their name.
This is the name of the home directory for the account.
Indicates whether the home directory of this account should be created if it does not exist yet.
This is a G-expression denoting the file name of a program to be used as the shell (see G-表达式). For example, you would refer to the Bash executable like this:
(file-append bash "/bin/bash")
... and to the Zsh executable like that:
(file-append zsh "/bin/zsh")
This Boolean value indicates whether the account is a “system” account. System accounts are sometimes treated specially; for instance, graphical login managers do not list them.
You would normally leave this field to
#f, initialize user passwords
root with the
passwd command, and then let users change
passwd. Passwords set with
passwd are of course
preserved across reboot and reconfiguration.
If you do want to set an initial password for an account, then this
field must contain the encrypted password, as a string. You can use the
crypt procedure for this purpose:
(user-account (name "charlie") (group "users") ;; Specify a SHA-512-hashed initial password. (password (crypt "InitialPassword!" "$6$abc")))
注: The hash of this initial password will be available in a file in /gnu/store, readable by all the users, so this method must be used with care.
See Passphrase Storage in The GNU C Library Reference Manual, for
more information on password encryption, and Encryption in GNU
Guile Reference Manual, for information on Guile’s
User group declarations are even simpler:
(user-group (name "students"))
This type is for, well, user groups. There are just a few fields:
The name of the group.
The group identifier (a number). If
#f, a new number is
automatically allocated when the group is created.
This Boolean value indicates whether the group is a “system” group. System groups have low numerical IDs.
What, user groups can have a password? Well, apparently yes. Unless
#f, this field specifies the password of the group.
For convenience, a variable lists all the basic user groups one may expect:
This is the list of basic user groups that users and/or packages expect to be present on the system. This includes groups such as “root”, “wheel”, and “users”, as well as groups used to control access to specific devices such as “audio”, “disk”, and “cdrom”.
This is the list of basic system accounts that programs may expect to find on a GNU/Linux system, such as the “nobody” account.
Note that the “root” account is not included here. It is a special-case and is automatically added whether or not it is specified.