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9.1.2 Параметры преобразования пакета

Другой набор параметров командной строки, поддерживаемых guix build и guix package это package transformation options. Это параметры, которые позволяют определять package variants—например, пакеты, созданные из другого исходного кода. Это удобный способ создавать индивидуальные пакеты на лету без необходимости вводить определения вариантов пакета (see Описание пакетов).

Параметры преобразования пакета сохраняются при обновлении: guix upgrade пытается применить параметры преобразования, которые изначально использовались при создании профиля, к обновленным пакетам.

Доступные варианты перечислены ниже. Большинство команд поддерживают их, а также поддерживают параметр --help-transform, в котором перечислены все доступные параметры и их крткое описание (эти параметры не показаны в выводе --help для краткости).


Use versions of the packages marked as “tunable” optimized for cpu. When cpu is native, or when it is omitted, tune for the CPU on which the guix command is running.

Valid cpu names are those recognized by the underlying compiler, by default the GNU Compiler Collection. On x86_64 processors, this includes CPU names such as nehalem, haswell, and skylake (see -march in Using the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)).

As new generations of CPUs come out, they augment the standard instruction set architecture (ISA) with additional instructions, in particular instructions for single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) parallel processing. For example, while Core2 and Skylake CPUs both implement the x86_64 ISA, only the latter supports AVX2 SIMD instructions.

The primary gain one can expect from --tune is for programs that can make use of those SIMD capabilities and that do not already have a mechanism to select the right optimized code at run time. Packages that have the tunable? property set are considered tunable packages by the --tune option; a package definition with the property set looks like this:

  (name "hello-simd")
  ;; ...

  ;; This package may benefit from SIMD extensions so
  ;; mark it as "tunable".
  (properties '((tunable? . #t))))

Other packages are not considered tunable. This allows Guix to use generic binaries in the cases where tuning for a specific CPU is unlikely to provide any gain.

Tuned packages are built with -march=CPU; under the hood, the -march option is passed to the actual wrapper by a compiler wrapper. Since the build machine may not be able to run code for the target CPU micro-architecture, the test suite is not run when building a tuned package.

To reduce rebuilds to the minimum, tuned packages are grafted onto packages that depend on them (see grafts). Thus, using --no-grafts cancels the effect of --tune.

We call this technique package multi-versioning: several variants of tunable packages may be built, one for each CPU variant. It is the coarse-grain counterpart of function multi-versioning as implemented by the GNU tool chain (see Function Multiversioning in Using the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)).


Используйте source в качестве источника package и version в качестве номера версии. source должен быть именем файла или URL-адресом, как для guix download (see Вызов guix download).

When package is omitted, it is taken to be the package name specified on the command line that matches the base of source—e.g., if source is /src/guile-2.0.10.tar.gz, the corresponding package is guile.

Likewise, when version is omitted, the version string is inferred from source; in the previous example, it is 2.0.10.

This option allows users to try out versions of packages other than the one provided by the distribution. The example below downloads ed-1.7.tar.gz from a GNU mirror and uses that as the source for the ed package:

guix build ed --with-source=mirror://gnu/ed/ed-1.4.tar.gz

As a developer, --with-source makes it easy to test release candidates, and even to test their impact on packages that depend on them:

guix build elogind --with-source=…/shepherd-0.9.0rc1.tar.gz

… or to build from a checkout in a pristine environment:

$ git clone git://
$ guix build guix --with-source=guix@1.0=./guix

Replace dependency on package by a dependency on replacement. package must be a package name, and replacement must be a package specification such as guile or guile@1.8.

For instance, the following command builds Guix, but replaces its dependency on the current stable version of Guile with a dependency on the legacy version of Guile, guile@2.2:

guix build --with-input=guile=guile@2.2 guix

This is a recursive, deep replacement. So in this example, both guix and its dependency guile-json (which also depends on guile) get rebuilt against guile@2.2.

This is implemented using the package-input-rewriting/spec Scheme procedure (see package-input-rewriting/spec).


This is similar to --with-input but with an important difference: instead of rebuilding the whole dependency chain, replacement is built and then grafted onto the binaries that were initially referring to package. See Обновления безопасности, for more information on grafts.

For example, the command below grafts version 3.5.4 of GnuTLS onto Wget and all its dependencies, replacing references to the version of GnuTLS they currently refer to:

guix build --with-graft=gnutls=gnutls@3.5.4 wget

This has the advantage of being much faster than rebuilding everything. But there is a caveat: it works if and only if package and replacement are strictly compatible—for example, if they provide a library, the application binary interface (ABI) of those libraries must be compatible. If replacement is somehow incompatible with package, then the resulting package may be unusable. Use with care!


Build package in a way that preserves its debugging info and graft it onto packages that depend on it. This is useful if package does not already provide debugging info as a debug output (see Установка файлов отладки).

For example, suppose you’re experiencing a crash in Inkscape and would like to see what’s up in GLib, a library deep down in Inkscape’s dependency graph. GLib lacks a debug output, so debugging is tough. Fortunately, you rebuild GLib with debugging info and tack it on Inkscape:

guix install inkscape --with-debug-info=glib

Only GLib needs to be recompiled so this takes a reasonable amount of time. See Установка файлов отладки, for more info.

Примечание: Under the hood, this option works by passing the ‘#:strip-binaries? #f’ to the build system of the package of interest (see Системы сборки). Most build systems support that option but some do not. In that case, an error is raised.

Likewise, if a C/C++ package is built without -g (which is rarely the case), debugging info will remain unavailable even when #:strip-binaries? is false.


This option changes the compilation of package and everything that depends on it so that they get built with toolchain instead of the default GNU tool chain for C/C++.

Рассмотрим пример:

guix build octave-cli \
  --with-c-toolchain=fftw=gcc-toolchain@10 \

The command above builds a variant of the fftw and fftwf packages using version 10 of gcc-toolchain instead of the default tool chain, and then builds a variant of the GNU Octave command-line interface using them. GNU Octave itself is also built with gcc-toolchain@10.

This other example builds the Hardware Locality (hwloc) library and its dependents up to intel-mpi-benchmarks with the Clang C compiler:

guix build --with-c-toolchain=hwloc=clang-toolchain \

Примечание: There can be application binary interface (ABI) incompatibilities among tool chains. This is particularly true of the C++ standard library and run-time support libraries such as that of OpenMP. By rebuilding all dependents with the same tool chain, --with-c-toolchain minimizes the risks of incompatibility but cannot entirely eliminate them. Choose package wisely.


Build package from the latest commit of the master branch of the Git repository at url. Git sub-modules of the repository are fetched, recursively.

For example, the following command builds the NumPy Python library against the latest commit of the master branch of Python itself:

guix build python-numpy \

This option can also be combined with --with-branch or --with-commit (see below).

Obviously, since it uses the latest commit of the given branch, the result of such a command varies over time. Nevertheless it is a convenient way to rebuild entire software stacks against the latest commit of one or more packages. This is particularly useful in the context of continuous integration (CI).

Рабочие копии хранятся в кэше в разделе ~/.cache/guix/checkouts для ускорения последовательных обращений к одному и тому же репозиторию. Возможно, вам захочется время от времени очищать его, чтобы сэкономить место на диске.


Build package from the latest commit of branch. If the source field of package is an origin with the git-fetch method (see origin Справка) or a git-checkout object, the repository URL is taken from that source. Otherwise you have to use --with-git-url to specify the URL of the Git repository.

For instance, the following command builds guile-sqlite3 from the latest commit of its master branch, and then builds guix (which depends on it) and cuirass (which depends on guix) against this specific guile-sqlite3 build:

guix build --with-branch=guile-sqlite3=master cuirass

This is similar to --with-branch, except that it builds from commit rather than the tip of a branch. commit must be a valid Git commit SHA1 identifier, a tag, or a git describe style identifier such as 1.0-3-gabc123.


Add file to the list of patches applied to package, where package is a spec such as python@3.8 or glibc. file must contain a patch; it is applied with the flags specified in the origin of package (see origin Справка), which by default includes -p1 (see patch Directories in Comparing and Merging Files).

As an example, the command below rebuilds Coreutils with the GNU C Library (glibc) patched with the given patch:

guix build coreutils --with-patch=glibc=./glibc-frob.patch

In this example, glibc itself as well as everything that leads to Coreutils in the dependency graph is rebuilt.


Append flag to the configure flags of package, where package is a spec such as guile@3.0 or glibc. The build system of package must support the #:configure-flags argument.

For example, the command below builds GNU Hello with the configure flag --disable-nls:

guix build hello --with-configure-flag=hello=--disable-nls

The following command passes an extra flag to cmake as it builds lapack:

guix build lapack \

Примечание: Under the hood, this option works by passing the ‘#:configure-flags’ argument to the build system of the package of interest (see Системы сборки). Most build systems support that option but some do not. In that case, an error is raised.


So you like living on the bleeding edge? The --with-latest option is for you! It replaces occurrences of package in the dependency graph with its latest upstream version, as reported by guix refresh (see Вызов guix refresh).

It does so by determining the latest upstream release of package (if possible), downloading it, and authenticating it if it comes with an OpenPGP signature.

As an example, the command below builds Guix against the latest version of Guile-JSON:

guix build --with-input=guile=guile@2.0 guix

The --with-version works similarly except that it lets you specify that you want precisely version, assuming that version exists upstream. For example, to spawn a development environment with SciPy built against version 1.22.4 of NumPy (skipping its test suite because hey, we’re not gonna wait this long), you would run:

guix shell python python-scipy --with-version=python-numpy=1.22.4

Внимание: Because they depend on source code published at a given point in time on upstream servers, deployments made with --with-latest and --with-version may be non-reproducible: source might disappear or be modified in place on the servers.

To deploy old software versions without compromising on reproducibility, see guix time-machine.

There are limitations. First, in cases where the tool cannot or does not know how to authenticate source code, you are at risk of running malicious code; a warning is emitted in this case. Second, this option simply changes the source used in the existing package definitions, which is not always sufficient: there might be additional dependencies that need to be added, patches to apply, and more generally the quality assurance work that Guix developers normally do will be missing.

You’ve been warned! When those limitations are acceptable, it’s a snappy way to stay on top. We encourage you to submit patches updating the actual package definitions once you have successfully tested an upgrade with --with-latest (see Содействие).


Build package without running its tests. This can be useful in situations where you want to skip the lengthy test suite of a intermediate package, or if a package’s test suite fails in a non-deterministic fashion. It should be used with care because running the test suite is a good way to ensure a package is working as intended.

Turning off tests leads to a different store item. Consequently, when using this option, anything that depends on package must be rebuilt, as in this example:

guix install --without-tests=python python-notebook

The command above installs python-notebook on top of python built without running its test suite. To do so, it also rebuilds everything that depends on python, including python-notebook itself.

Internally, --without-tests relies on changing the #:tests? option of a package’s check phase (see Системы сборки). Note that some packages use a customized check phase that does not respect a #:tests? #f setting. Therefore, --without-tests has no effect on these packages.

Wondering how to achieve the same effect using Scheme code, for example in your manifest, or how to write your own package transformation? See Defining Package Variants, for an overview of the programming interfaces available.

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