This section summarizes all the options available in
declarations (see 定义软件包).
This is the data type representing a package recipe.
The name of the package, as a string.
The version of the package, as a string. See 版本号, for guidelines.
An object telling how the source code for the package should be acquired.
Most of the time, this is an
origin object, which denotes a file
fetched from the Internet (see origin参考手册). It can also be any
other “file-like” object such as a
local-file, which denotes a file
from the local file system (see
The build system that should be used to build the package (see 构建系统).
The arguments that should be passed to the build system (see 构建系统). This is a list, typically containing sequential keyword-value pairs, as in this example:
(package (name "example") ;; several fields omitted (arguments (list #:tests? #f ;skip tests #:make-flags #~'("VERBOSE=1") ;pass flags to 'make' #:configure-flags #~'("--enable-frobbing"))))
The exact set of supported keywords depends on the build system
(see 构建系统), but you will find that almost all of them honor
#:phases keyword in particular lets you modify
the set of build phases for your package (see Build Phases).
These fields list dependencies of the package. Each element of these lists is either a package, origin, or other “file-like object” (see G-表达式); to specify the output of that file-like object that should be used, pass a two-element list where the second element is the output (see 有多个输出的软件包, for more on package outputs). For example, the list below specifies three inputs:
(list libffi libunistring `(,glib "bin")) ;the "bin" output of GLib
In the example above, the
"out" output of
libunistring is used.
Compatibility Note: Until version 1.3.0, input lists were a list of tuples, where each tuple has a label for the input (a string) as its first element, a package, origin, or derivation as its second element, and optionally the name of the output thereof that should be used, which defaults to
"out". For example, the list below is equivalent to the one above, but using the old input style:;; Old input style (deprecated). `(("libffi" ,libffi) ("libunistring" ,libunistring) ("glib:bin" ,glib "bin")) ;the "bin" output of GLib
This style is now deprecated; it is still supported but support will be removed in a future version. It should not be used for new package definitions. See Invoking guix style, on how to migrate to the new style.
The distinction between
inputs is necessary
when considering cross-compilation. When cross-compiling, dependencies
inputs are built for the target architecture;
conversely, dependencies listed in
native-inputs are built for the
architecture of the build machine.
native-inputs is typically used to list tools needed at build time,
but not at run time, such as Autoconf, Automake, pkg-config, Gettext, or
guix lint can report likely mistakes in this area
(see 调用guix lint).
propagated-inputs is similar to
inputs, but the
specified packages will be automatically installed to profiles
(see the role of profiles in Guix) alongside the package they
belong to (see
for information on how
guix package deals with propagated inputs).
For example this is necessary when packaging a C/C++ library that needs
headers of another library to compile, or when a pkg-config file refers to
another one via its
Another example where
propagated-inputs is useful is for languages
that lack a facility to record the run-time search path akin to the
RUNPATH of ELF files; this includes Guile, Python, Perl, and more.
When packaging libraries written in those languages, ensure they can find
library code they depend on at run time by listing run-time dependencies in
propagated-inputs rather than
The list of output names of the package. See 有多个输出的软件包, for typical uses of additional outputs.
A list of
search-path-specification objects describing search-path
environment variables honored by the package. See Search Paths, for more
on search path specifications.
As for inputs, the distinction between
search-paths only matters when cross-compiling. In a
native-search-paths applies exclusively to
native inputs whereas
search-paths applies only to host inputs.
Packages such as cross-compilers care about target inputs—for instance,
our (modified) GCC cross-compiler has
search-paths, which allows it to pick .h files for the target
system and not those of native inputs. For the majority of packages
native-search-paths makes sense.
This must be either
#f or a package object that will be used as a
replacement for this package. See grafts, for
A one-line description of the package.
A more elaborate description of the package, as a string in Texinfo syntax.
The license of the package; a value from
(guix licenses), or a list
of such values.
The URL to the home-page of the package, as a string.
The list of systems supported by the package, as strings of the form
architecture-kernel, for example
location(default: source location of the
The source location of the package. It is useful to override this when inheriting from another package, in which case this field is not automatically corrected.
When used in the lexical scope of a package field definition, this identifier resolves to the package being defined.
The example below shows how to add a package as a native input of itself when cross-compiling:
(package (name "guile") ;; ... ;; When cross-compiled, Guile, for example, depends on ;; a native version of itself. Add it here. (native-inputs (if (%current-target-system) (list this-package) '())))
It is an error to refer to
this-package outside a package definition.
The following helper procedures are provided to help deal with package inputs.
Look up name among package’s inputs (or native, propagated, or
direct inputs). Return it if found,
name is the name of a package depended on. Here’s how you might use it:
(use-modules (guix packages) (gnu packages base)) (lookup-package-direct-input coreutils "gmp") ⇒ #<package firstname.lastname@example.org …>
In this example we obtain the
gmp package that is among the direct
Sometimes you will want to obtain the list of inputs needed to
develop a package—all the inputs that are visible when the package
is compiled. This is what the
package for development purposes on system. When target
is true, return the inputs needed to cross-compile package from
system to triplet, where triplet is a triplet such as
Note that the result includes both explicit inputs and implicit
inputs—inputs automatically added by the build system (see 构建系统). Let us take the
hello package to illustrate that:
(use-modules (gnu packages base) (guix packages)) hello ⇒ #<package email@example.com gnu/packages/base.scm:79 7f585d4f6790> (package-direct-inputs hello) ⇒ () (package-development-inputs hello) ⇒ (("source" …) ("tar" #<package firstname.lastname@example.org …>) …)
In this example,
package-direct-inputs returns the empty list,
hello has zero explicit dependencies. Conversely,
package-development-inputs includes inputs implicitly added by
gnu-build-system that are required to build
hello: tar, gzip,
GCC, libc, Bash, and more. To visualize it,
guix graph hello
would show you explicit inputs, whereas
guix graph -t bag hello
would include implicit inputs (see 调用guix graph).
Because packages are regular Scheme objects that capture a complete dependency graph and associated build procedures, it is often useful to write procedures that take a package and return a modified version thereof according to some parameters. Below are a few examples.
Return a variant of package that uses toolchain instead of the
default GNU C/C++ toolchain. toolchain must be a list of inputs
(label/package tuples) providing equivalent functionality, such as the
The example below returns a variant of the
hello package built with
GCC 10.x and the rest of the GNU tool chain (Binutils and the GNU C
Library) instead of the default tool chain:
(let ((toolchain (specification->package "gcc-toolchain@10"))) (package-with-c-toolchain hello `(("toolchain" ,toolchain))))
The build tool chain is part of the implicit inputs of packages—it’s usually not listed as part of the various “inputs” fields and is instead pulled in by the build system. Consequently, this procedure works by changing the build system of package so that it pulls in toolchain instead of the defaults. 构建系统, for more on build systems.